1.) Summary: The first chapter is an introduction given by Scout, our main character and narrator about the Finch family and events leading up to her brother, Jem’s, broken arm. It begins with Simon Finch who established himself in a homestead called “Finch’s Landing”, by the Alabama river, he was rich. Atticus, one of his kids, studied law and moved away along with his brother who studied medicine, while their sister stayed. Atticus moved to Maycomb County a town that is suffering through the Great Depression, where he lived alone with his 2 children, Scout and Jem, and cook, Calpurnia. His wife died when the children were very young and only one remembers her. The children are fascinated with their neighbor’s house, which attracts them with a spooky backstory of a resident named Arthur Radley. The children’s activities involve tests of true bravery judged by who can get close enough and plans to make Boo come out with their friend Dill who visits every summer.
1.) Analysis: The introduction chapter is basically just to inform you on reader’s common knowledge. Most things that you need to know about the book can be found here. It also introduces you to pre-transformation Scout, meaning Scout and Jem have undergone no character development. To put it shortly, this chapter is a basic description of their happy and innocent childhood, because they’re kids they will believe anything life tells them.
2.) Summary: Summer is over and Dill is returning back to Meridian. Scout looks forward to going back to school and Jem begins to distance himself from her at school explaining that 1st graders and 5th graders, shouldn’t be seen together. We meet the 1st grade teacher, Miss. Caroline. when Miss. Caroline puts the alphabet on the board, everyone already knows it due to taking 1st grade for the 2nd time. When Miss.Caroline asks Scout to read she’s very displeased that she already knew how and accused Atticus of teaching her and said she wasn’t allowed to read or write anymore. Scout also tried to help explain to Miss.Caroline that Walter Cunningham, didn’t have a lunch because he was poor and that he couldn’t take a quarter because a Cunningham didn’t borrow what he couldn’t give back. Scout knows this because Walter’s father was one of Atticus’ clients. Miss.Caroline took this as rude behavior and swatted her hand along with banishing her to the corner.
2.) Analysis: The moral of this chapter is about learning from your mistakes. Scout was angry at Miss.Caroline for being rude to her, but unlike us, she only sees her side. At the end of the chapter we see Miss.Caroline sink down into her chair and bury her head, obviously upset with herself, but Scout shows little sympathy because she’s only looking at her side. Oh look! Our main character’s first sign of imperfection!
3.) Summary: The chapter begins with Scout bullying Walter Cunningham in the schoolyard for getting her in trouble, but Jem stops her. When she tries to explain what happened to Jem, he just invites Walter over for lunch, where Atticus and Walter talk in the language of agriculture which Scout and Jem know nothing about. Walter is offered syrup and pours it all over his food, with judgement from Scout. Calpurnia is disappointed and calls Scout into the kitchen where she lectures her on treating others with respect, even if they’re different, he is her company. When Scout goes back to school she is still angry, but that’s forgotten when Miss.Caroline spots a lice on one of the students, Burris Ewell, who she says should go take a bath. This is where we learn about the Ewells and how they only come to school on the first day. Dissatisfied with her first day of school, Scout has a talk with Atticus who tries to teach her his famous lesson of how to not judge someone until you stand in their shoes.
3.) Analysis: In this chapter we learn that Jem is more mature and still maturing. Scout’s belief that poor people are dumb is proved wrong. Scout is judgemental, but learning not to be. The Ewells are introduced for the first time in the form of Burris as gross, who will be revealed again later. This is also the first time Scout is taught in Atticus’s belief in how to perceive others.
4.) Summary: Everyday Scout runs past the Radley house in fear, but one day bravery and curiosity make themselves present. A piece of gum is found in the knothole of the Radley tree, which surprisingly, isn’t poison, but Jem thinks it is and makes Scout spit it out. Finally it’s summer and on the way home they find 2 pennies and more goodies. They don’t know whether or not to keep money, but in the end they decide to. When Dill shows up childhood is unpaused and they horse around, which ends in Scout on the Radley’s front lawn. Jem thinks it’d be a good idea to act out the Radley story. When Atticus catches them, Jem decides to lie.
4.) Analysis: In childhood, Boo Radley maintains presence in their minds. When Jem lies it shows he wants to act like an adult, but he still holds the qualities of a child. However, Jem is older and feels that Boo is trying to make contact. At the end of the chapter Jem stares up at the Radley house and Scout doesn’t know why.
5.) Summary: The boys grow closer and begin neglecting Scout so she begins spending more time with Miss Maudie who is delighted to share her prized cakes with all 3 children. Miss Maudie provides more information about the Radleys. She explains that Boo just doesn’t want to come out and that his father is very religious and all fun is a sin. The day after includes Scout, where all 3 kids try to slip a note through a window of the Radley house. Atticus catches them and tells them to stop bothering him.
5.) Analysis: Miss Maudie helps teach the kids about respect and how to not be prejudice, she also helps shift the image of Boo from a monster to an actual person damaged by the father’s lack of joy and care. Atticus also wants not to mistreat people because they’re different or unknown. He implies respect.
6.) Summary: It’s Dill’s last night in Maycomb once again and him and Jen decide to peek into the Radley house. Even though Scout is afraid she tags along to prove she isn’t. When they’re finally on the back porch they spot a man with a shotgun and run, while he fires behind them. As they run over the fence, Jem’s pants get caught and he leaves them there. The shot heard round the neighborhood wakes everyone and when the children get home, Jem’s missing pants cause skepticism, but the kids assure that they were only playing strip poker. Jem later goes back to get his pants and he finds them all sewed up and folded, but he doesn’t tell Scout. Atticus is actually really okay and strict at the same time with his children’s actions.
6.) Analysis: Despite lessons, kids will be kids. Once again, they lie to protect themselves, go where they’re not allowed to go and just ignore rules. However, Atticus is very understanding. He just continues to try and teach the most important thing, respect. Even though society has it’s own standards, so does Atticus.
7.) Summary: Scout begins 2nd grade which isn’t much better than 1st grade. They still walk home past the Radley house and Jem finally tells Scout about his pants. They also continue to find gifts in the knothole, gum, a broken watch and even soap carved to look like them. Jem changes his original idea that they write another letter, but this time they put it in the knothole. The next day, Nathan Radley cements the knothole claiming the tree was dying, but Atticus tells jem it wasn’t. The kids were crushed, Scout thinks she sees Jem crying.
7.) Analysis: The pants being mended proves that Boo Radley isn’t a monster. Jem, unlike Scout, knows within himself that it is Boo. Jem is growing up, he’s also older with more life experience. He understands the hardship that is Boo’s communication being blocked, while Scout still doesn’t know who’s giving them the gifts.
8. Summary: The chapter begins with the death of Mrs. Radley. Her death has little impact on the surrounding community nor the Finches. It’s suddenly getting really cold and it is believed that weather changes when children are rebellious and disobedient. Then it begins to snow. Scout believes that her and her brother had somehow contributed to the snow. School was canceled due to the sudden weather change. Jem and scout make a mud-man and cover it in snow so it looks like a snowman which is at first thought to be a black man, but it isn’t, it is however representing Mr. Avery. Atticus feels this is bad so they borrow Miss Maudie’s gardening tool and hat for the snow man. Later, Miss Maudie’s house burns down and she takes it as an opportunity for a new start.
8.) Analysis:.The change in weather and season shows the transition in the novel to a more gothic or dark mood. This could be interpreted as an element of foreshadowing to say that something that something bad is going to happen. The house itself burning down and the whole yard surrounding it is the end of the place for Jem and Scout to play, almost forcing them to grow up. Even though Miss Maudie’s house burning down shows the end for some things, it’s also a new beginning for everyone, and Miss Maudie to have a nicer place for her azaleas.
9. Summary: At the beginning of the chapter it is established that Atticus is defending a black man, which Scout actually has no clue about and nearly beats up a classmate for saying her father love blacks. When she confronts him about it he says that it is beginning a major part of the storyline (for him and the book). Fast forward to Christmas- Uncle Jack and Aunt Alexandra come to visit. Atticus gives Jem and Scout air rifles for Christmas, they’re delighted and he explains to them that they can shoot all the birds they want, just not mockingbirds. It is a sin to kill a mockingbird and it is not yet explained why. Aunt Alexandra thinks that Scout is unladylike and tries her best to change Scout’s attitude although Atticus reassures to her that it’s okay to just be who she is while she’s still young. Later in the chapter Francis calls Atticus a “Nigger-lover” and continues until she punches him. After Uncle Jack hit her he later comes around and Scout convinces him to listen to her side of the story, when Jack goes back to report to Atticus, it is established that the trial is too far gone, there is almost no way for the black man to win the case and this is something that Atticus and his family are going to have to have consequences for.
9.) Analysis: The main focus of this chapter is stereotypes and southern society. Jem mentions that he would be taught how to cook by their Aunt and Scout finds this absolutely ridiculous because she believes, “Boys don’t cook,” this shows the many stereotypes, not just racial. Scout isn’t even herself a proper southern lady, but she has the ideals in her head. Due to location she is exposed to the stereotypes and discrimination against blacks. When she punches her cousin Francis for making fun of her father, she is punished by Uncle Jack without anybody asking her what happened, just as people are deciding on the guilt of the Tom Robinson without consideration or thought. The word of a white man always overpowers that of a black man without question, and those who defend him will also be prosecuted by the Maycomb citizens and the south’s racist society.
10.) Summary: Assuming that her father is too old and not as interesting as other fathers in the county of Maycomb, Scout goes to Miss Maudie and Calpurnia and asks about his lack of talents, since she is a child she doesn’t comprehend all the things that her father actually does. They fill her in on all the talents that Atticus is seemingly okay with his children knowing. Later, she and Jem see Tim Johnson, a local dog, who seems to be injured. They ask Cal to go help him and once Cal sees Tim she screams and warns everyone that there is a mad dog on the loose. Once everyone has hidden in their homes, the Sheriff shows up and everyone thinks that Atticus should be the one to shoot the mad dog, Jem and Scout are confused because they’re father doesn’t have any talents Atticus didn’t want them to shoot any live animals. Somehow he has perfect aim and shoots the dog and the chapter ends when Jem tells Scout not to go blabbing all over town because Atticus is not proud of that ability. Or at least, that’s what he wants them to think.
10.) Analysis: We find the meaning in the title To Kill a Mockingbird is explained when Atticus tells them that although he does not approve of killing animals, they can shoot any, just not the mockingbird, for it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. The title can be inferred to mean that punishing an innocent person is wrong, especially when they only want to help up. This can be seen through Tom Robinson, he just wanted to help Estella, but now Bob Ewell is going after him. In this chapter Atticus shoots a dog when it becomes infected with a disease, maybe rabies. Throughout this chapter Jem and Scout have been struggling with the fact that Atticus is older and shows little interest in the things that younger fathers do. When Atticus shoots the dog they find out that he is actually excellent shot, he just doesn’t brag about it, but why didn’t Calpurnia and Miss Maudie tell them? This deepens Atticus’s character because we see that this is something we didn’t know before and that he uses only when he absolutely must, and strengthens the proof that Atticus is a family man.
11.) Summary: After Scout and Jem were done bothering Boo Radley, they switched their attention to Mrs. Dubose, a wealthy woman who is crippled and old and always bothering them. Despite her verbal abuse towards the seemingly innocent children, Atticus encourages them to be nice to her and so they bear her behavior. Later Jem goes to buy a toy train and baton for Scout when Mrs. Dubose insulted Atticus and calls him names. Jem is so upset that he is no longer happy and freaks out and when they get back Jem breaks her baton and runs over to her yard, cutting off all the flowers and buds of Mrs. Dubose’s camellia bushes and when Scout won’t stop shrieking he pulls her hair and kicks her to the ground, apologizing right after. When Atticus comes home he has Jem apologize to Scout and Mrs. Dubose and when Jem goes over to say that he was sorry he promises to her that he will care for everything he destroyed, but also they he’ll read for her, going to her house every day for a month and read for two hours. She ends up antagonizing them for the whole month, but even when they finish Atticus explains that she is old and recovering from morphine overdose. The woman dies about a month later and gives Jem a camellia from her garden, like a silent thank you from her true self, which makes Jem angry.
11.) Analysis: This chapter is mainly focused on Mrs.Dubose, and is very stereotypical once again. Mrs. Dubose really pushes Jem to the limit, just like any challenge in life will, and even when Jem freaks out he still goes through with the effort to make up for his mistakes. Even when he is afraid of her, he holds it together for hours everyday as he patiently goes with her requests and reads to her. At the end of the chapter when she dies and Jem receives the flower, he is extremely angry that she “won’t leave him alone”, but at the same time is conflicted that Atticus thinks that Mrs. Dubose is the bravest person he ever knew, so Jem is struck with a conflict judging her as the person he saw everyday or the person he didn’t see.
12.) Summary: Jem is now 12 and more difficult to live with, suddenly he now thought he knew everything including what was best for Scout. He now agrees with Aunt Alexandra that she should act like a lady. But Dill still loves her and told her it’s okay that he’s not coming back and to stay Scout, also that he would marry her when he gets enough money. The news about Atticus’ career activities spread, and went out of town, so Calpurnia brought the kids to her church, First Purchase Church. People were glad see them at the church, but not all. The money collected was going towards the family of Tom Robinson, and the church wouldn’t let them leave until they had 10 dollars to give. Going to the church let Jem and Scout witness how Calpurnia acted around them differed from the way she was around people of her color.
12.) Analysis: This chapter shows the transition of Jem growing up and him becoming difficult shows that he is maturing and Scout doesn't understand. He is becoming a teenager and most teenagers think they know everything and are also curious about everything (as Calpurnia calls the “look arounds”.) Scout and Jem going to church with Cal shows that they are accepting people for just being people, like Atticus has taught them. Even though some of the black did want them there because of their father and skin color. When the church shut the door and didn’t let the people go until they raised 10 dollars for Tom shows that people come together when they need to, as a community. This highlights that even people with so little can give, whether it’s through money or just being there as a community.
13.) Summary: Due to no presence of a mother figure or feminine influence Aunt Alexandra came to Maycomb to live with Atticus and his family for a while could be for a few days to a few years. Aunt Alexandra wants to teach Scout how to be a proper lady and Scout doesn’t want to even imagine beginning to start to being this proper lady that she should be in the society of Maycomb. Her Aunt fits into the area very well and she becomes secretary of the Maycomb Amanuensis Club, which is basically just a writing club. Scout also informs us that their Aunt begins to teach them about the people in their families that have made an impact and the Finch legacy. She convinces Atticus to further teach Jem and Scout about it, but when Atticus disciplines Scout for not listening, she begins to break down because she’s not used to seeing her father so upset saying, “my father never spoke so,” and Atticus leaves and tells them to forget what he was trying to tell them.
13.) Analysis: Aunt Alexandra coming to live with Atticus and his family represents a feminine influence for Scout, however she isn’t the best at her job in getting Scout to become a part of proper society. Even with her best effort, Scout is still a child and very proud to embarrass her aunt in public and purposely disobey her. Atticus’s transition of being a father who is always understanding and persevering trying to learn about who and what their family is even though they have no interest what so ever. When Scout begins crying he discovers that his family is more important than just what his sister wants. When Scout asks him if they should be worried during this, he replies that it is not time to worry yet and that could mean that his safety is jeopardised in this trial. Which is foreshadowing of Bob Ewell’s future threat and action.
14.) Summary: Scout doesn’t know what rape is and is very curious hearing all the talk about it, after asking Calpurnia she sent to her father to ask. Aunt Alexandra is displeased by Scout being raised by a black woman, she feels that Atticus has let it get too far and that she is the right fineman figure for Scout . When she is talking to Calpurnia about this she says “she has gone too far” and Scout assumes it’s her. Atticus defends Calpurnia and tell his sister that the kids love her and she's not leaving until she want to, for shse is part of the family. Scout and Jem star to fight because Scout doesn't feel like she has to listen to him as well as Aunt Alexandra, Atticus and Cal; her father's solution was “ ,,,You mind Jem whenever he can make you...” Later that night Scout tells jem of a sound coming from under her bed, thinking it was a snake they went to check it out and it turns out to be Dill, who had ran off from his parents. Dill stays the night and Atticus informs his parent of his whereabout, and he falls asleep next to Scout dreaming of getting a baby from a mysterious island. G0692
14.) Analysis: This chapter represents Scouts reluctancey of growing , this illustrates the fact that Scout is still oblivious to the struggles of life showing that she's not able to share the same feelings as her father., Scout does not comprehend the struggle her father is going throught the case.When Aunt Alexandra is concerned about Cal this bluntly shows the racism in their own family, and proves that Aunt Alexandra may not be the best women figure for Scout. She wouldn't bother herself with the right morials, because she is too caught up with her appearance.The reappearance of Dill gives the feeling of childlike wonder, bring back her innocence, leaving her worries behind.
15.) Summary: It is decided that Dill could stay for the summer, and one night Jem answers the door and it's Mr. Heck Tate and a big group of other men who are all worried about Atticus and the fact that he is defending a black man with accusers that will come after him because of it. Jem then calls out that the phone's ringing and the men disperse. Later on when the kids are on their way to bed, Atticus leaves out of the back door and takes the car to town. This is unusual for him, so Jem and Scout plan to pick up Dill and follow him later on. When they find him he is sitting in front of the jail where Tom Robinson is kept. A bunch of cars drive up and a mob of men get out and surround Atticus, so the kids go up to see what's going on. Jem tries to stand up for his dad, but it's Scout who helps make them disperse when she recognizes Mr. Cunningham and starts a conversation with him.
15.) Analysis: The first group of men trying to warn Atticus were all people they knew and saw daily. This still didn't make the kids any less scared. Jem was so worried about his father, most likely because he could see that some confrontation was bound to happen. When their fears from the first group were quelled they started to suspect that something else was going on. When Atticus took the car that just solidified their suspicions. The second group of men were all unfamiliar to Jem and Scout except for Mr. Cunningham. How Scout got the mob to go away was that she helped show them the good in themselves using her sweet innocence.
16.) Summary: After their encounter with the mob, they quietly go home and go to bed. The next day begins the day of the trial, so Atticus heads down to the court room to begin. With everyone else going to watch in the town, Jem, Scout, and Dill all go to see as well. When they first get to the court room there is a man who is drinking out of a paper bag, which makes it seem as though he is drinking liquor. He is with a black woman and they have several mixed children with them. The children go up and sit with Reverend Sykes in the colored balcony to watch their father debate.
16.) Analysis: They all most likely feel a little shaken by that scary incident the night before and also relieved that the mob went away without a fuss. The children are all hopeful that after the trial this will all be over and they can get back to life as usual. The man they see when they get to the courtroom has a fairly bad reputation of being a drunk. He gets an even worse reputation for his preference for blacks over whites. It can be seen as bad that the children of Atticus, the man defending a black man, are sitting in the colored balcony. They would be giving their whole family and even larger reputation for prefering blacks over whites.
17.) Summary: The trial officially begins, starting with Mr. Heck Tate's, the sheriff's, testimony on how he was called to the crime scene by Mr. Ewell. Then a number of other witnesses ensue. Every one of the witnesses makes it look as though Tom is innocent. Even Mr. Ewell himself proves to the jury that he is left-handed, which would be the ideal attackers preferred hand to bruise the girl where she was bruised. Tom's left hand had been mutilated when he was a boy by a cotton gin.
17.) Analysis: This is the main portion of the trial that really gets the reader to believe in Tom Robinson's innocence. The Ewell's seem even worse and are made to look like fools in front of the whole court. Even Judge Taylor calls Bob Ewell out on how rude he is. The Ewell's live on a small place behind the dump and their yard is covered in trash. Nobody knows exactly how many kids Bob has, only that he has a lot, but they never go to school and are made to stay at home all the time with no one but themselves to keep them company. This can explain their predicament even better.
18.) Summary: As the trial continues keeping everyone glued to the intense scenes, Mayella Ewell is the next person to testify. She is the girl that says that Tom raped her. She describes how she asked Tom Robinson inside and offered him a nickel if he would take apart a dresser for her. That's when the incident happened she said. When examined by Atticus, she also describes how her life only consists of her seven terrible siblings, her drunken father, and no friends. When pushed to confess that it was her father who beat her, not Tom she throws a fit and starts screaming about how the court was a bunch of cowards if they did not convict Tom Robinson. Everyone took a recess and came back to hear the defense's one witness, Tom Robinson.
18.) Analysis: Mayella's testimony is by far the most emotional of the whole trial, just because she is so flustered and easily angered by all of Atticus's questions asking her to tell the truth. Her story is never consistent, so she simply turns to try and use pathos and get her final word out about how awful anyone who didn't convict Tom was. Mayella seemed to be controlled by her father in most of her answers, as he would lean forward in his chair as soon as she would get close to saying something against him. She made a huge scene in court that would have made her locked up she had not been so young and ignorant.
19.) Summary: Tom Robinson takes the stand and is questioned. He contradicts a lot of Mayella testified and describes how the incident really happened. Then the prosecution comes to question him and are very harsh with him and ask him very cruel and insensitive questions. His harsh treatment makes Dill cry, so he and Scout go outside. While outside they meet the man who had been drinking out of a paper bag, only to find out that he is actually only drinking a coke. The reason for this he describes as being that he does not want people to think he is in his right mind when he is with his black mistress and black friends so he does not get persecuted as much.
19.) Analysis: Tom was treated very unfairly and as if he were nothing more than an already convicted murderer. The prosecution calls him a flat-out lier after his testimony. Dill just can not believe their unfair treatment of Tom. Scout and Jem don't understand their treatment, but it entirely offends poor Dill. When Scout and Dill meet the man with the paper bag again, they actually admire what he is doing in a way and secretly wish that everyone could be as accepting as he is of blacks.
20.) Summary: The two kids come to find out that Mr. Dolphus Raymond is only pretending to be drunk all of the time to give people and excuse as to why he is with black people all of the time. He really just prefers blacks to whites. When Scout and Dill re-enter the courtroom, they find Atticus making his final remarks to the jury. He ends with a very personal note to the jury about how all the evidence pointed to Tom's innocence and that the prosecutors were thinking that the jury would just simply take their word over Tom's because he was black. Atticus pleads with the jury to not just simply treat this case as black versus white, but take it for the evidence and not just assume that all blacks are immoral liers.
20.) Analysis: Mr. Dolphus presents an interesting situation for these kids. They feel terrible at first for ever believing that he was an awful drunk. He was really a very nice somber man this entire time, he just had to give everyone else an excuse for his preferences in people. Atticus's final remarks are very moving and really challenge the major social beliefs of that time. This is where the major theme of battling racism is shown. His speech really summed up that entire portion of the book.
21.) Summary: Calpurnia enters to give Atticus a note telling him that his kids have not been home that day. Mr. Underwood explains that they're in the colored balcony and Atticus makes them go home for supper while they wait for a verdict, though verdicts in cases like this one usually come back very quickly. The children go back with Calpurnia and then come back after supper only to find that the jury is still out. Jem is certain that Tom will get a non-guilty verdict when the jury comes back out, but Scout notices that none of the jurors look at Tom as the convict him guilty of rape. As Atticus goes to leave the courtroom defeated, all of the people in the colored balcony stand in respect for what he has done for Tom.
21.) Analysis: The kids didn't think that Mr. Underwood would tell Atticus that they were sitting in the colored balcony, but were most likely glad that he was not mad at them for it. It was very unusual for cases like this one in this time period to take so long for the jury to come up with a verdict. They are usually in and out within a few minutes, but in this case it took the jury over three hours to come to a decision. The decision stayed the same as most did back then though. This showed progress in the way they thought, but not a full sway. The colored community were all so thankful towards Atticus for all that he had done and for Tom, because no one else would probably have done it.
22.) Summary: With the guilty verdict on Tom the whole courtroom seemed cheerful, except for Jem, who was bawling tears. When they got back home, Dill got in a bit of trouble for running away from his aunt again without asking her. The next morning, The children walk out to find Ms. Maudie and several of their other neighbors standing around outside. They go join them and get bombarded with questions and chatter. Ms. Maudie eventually pulls them aside to eat cakes and talk in private. She explains why the verdict came back how it did and how that is not necessarily the verdict that the majority of the towns people would have wanted. Jem then starts making crazy goals about doing away with juries and other interesting things.
22.) Analysis: The guilty verdict really struck a chord with Jem. He was expecting a non-guilty one and couldn't understand how anyone could think otherwise. He was very shocked, and some even thought that he blamed Atticus partially for the verdict. Ms. Maudie really does want him to understand what happened and why it happened. This way he won't blame his father anymore. Jem, still being a child, just shifts his blame to the jury and that's why he starts up his goal of doing away with juries in the future. Ms. Maudie at least realizes the step that Atticus accomplished by keeping that jury out so long. He made them question their chief social principles.
23.) Summary: Mr. Ewell came up to Atticus and spit on him and threatened to get even with him for standing up for that black man. Atticus just wipes it off without another thought and walks past. The children start to worry about him and his safety with Bob Ewell carrying a grudge on him. Jem continues to try and find things that would explain why the jury had to sentence Tom like they did. Scout tries to get Aunt Alexandra to let her invite Walter Cunningham for lunch one day. Aunt Alexandra puts her foot down and firmly says no. When Scout asks why, she is explained the social class system in the area and how it just isn't right for her to be associating with Walter. Scout frankly doesn't understand because of her innocent mind and way of looking at people.
23.) Analysis: Atticus never seems scared or affected by what Mr. Ewell does, though his kids feel quite the contrary. Jem's feelings towards the case never subsided like Atticus thought they would, Jem is still trying to just make sense of it all, with little luck. Aunt Alexandra holds an old-fashioned view on society that she is trying to impress on Scout who is simply too young to understand why they must treat different people different from others. They all seem the same to her, but to her aunt they are all extremely different and should never mix. Jem, being more mature has a better understanding of what their aunt is trying to say and tries his best to explain it all to Scout.
24.) Summary: Aunt Alexandra is hosting some of the town’s ladies and has invited Scout to join them. She listens and converses with the ladies for a while and realizes that she must become one of these ladies some day. Then suddenly, Atticus comes into the room and requests Scout and Alexandra to consult with him in the kitchen. He tells them the sad news that Tom Robinson has just died trying to escape from prison. He was shot 17 times climbing over the prison wall. He takes Calpurnia with him to go tell Tom’s wife. Scout and Alexandra go back to the ladies and continue as if nothing had happened.
24.) Analysis: Aunt Alexandra is trying to immerse Scout into her wonderful world of ladies so Scout will feel more comfortable with her future. Scout starts out a little uncomfortable, but then starts to warm up to all of the ladies. She enjoys some of their gossip, but when one of the ladies mentions Tom Robinson in a derogatory manner, it hits a chord with her, but she chokes it down. When Atticus came in to tell them the news, it hurt Scout a lot to find out. She felt that it was unfair and unnecessary. Aunt Alexandra seems only slightly affected and goes back into the ladies as if nothing ever happened so that the ladies’ suspicions are not aroused about anything being wrong.
25.) Summary: When a small critter comes into the house, Jem’s feelings towards killing it surprise young Scout. Jem’s newfound maturity is nothing but odd to Scout. Then Scout recollects about what Dill told her when Atticus took him, Jem, and Calpurnia to tell Tom Robinson’s wife that he was dead. Jem had been teaching Dill how to swim when Atticus drove up. They hitched a ride with him as he and Calpurnia drive up to Tom’s wife’s house. The widow was shocked and terribly frightened. When the local papers came out, they had a few strongly worded articles about just how unfair and cruel Tom’s death was.
25.) Analysis: Jem’s maturity is shoving Scout’s pending adulthood in her face and it is hard for her to comprehend. Dill may have exaggerated a little in his description of Mrs. Robinson, but he didn’t show it. Tom’s death, and the circumstances around it were so unfair and unlawful that they pushed even some of the most refined and soft-spoken on issues such as this one, to step up and speak on behalf of poor Tom. This was exactly what the reporter of the local paper did. For a moment he didn’t care what anyone in the town would think of his paper, all he wanted to do was get the facts, and his opinion out there.
26.) Summary: Scout and Jem just started school again with Jem now in high school. Jem tries out for the football team, but only makes water boy. He's fine with this because the coach said that if he bulks up and gains some weight that he could play on the team next year. Scout is in third grade and finds it odd that her new teacher, Ms. Gates, will go on a huge rant over how cruel Hitler is and how unlawful and bias he is. Then Scout can remember Ms. Gates coming out of the Tom Robinson trial very pleased with the verdict and saying how it was good that the blacks were put in their place. Scout continues to be curious about the Radley place and always passes by there on her way home.
26.) Analysis: Jem has less and less time for Scout as he continues to mature, Scout is still left to just wonder about things to herself. With Jem gone to walk her quickly past the Radley place, she takes her time and her suspicions arise again. When Ms. Gates goes on her rant about how awful Hitler and the German situation is, all Scout can think about is what a hypocrite Ms. Gates is. This really makes Scout angry at how some people can say that about people so far away, but can't see what's going on right in their own town. This just concludes in the reader's mind what a problem racism is in this community, and this country for that matter.
27.) Summary: In chapter 27 its October school is in session and Bob Ewell is bothering the towns people. He had gotten a job at the WPA but lost it for laziness almost as soon as he got it. He bothered Judge Taylor Helen Robinson and even said Atticus "got" his job. They halloween fair was done differently and Scout was dressed as a ham for a pageant about Maycomb counties agricultural products. Scout wanted her family to come but Atticus said he couldn't and Aunt Alexandra went to bed early though she did perform it for her family at home. Jem ended up taking her to the pageant.
27.) Analysis: Chapter 27 is a short chapter. Ewell seems to be going after anyone involved in the case seeking revenge for what has been lost he hadn't gone after the finches yet but Atticus knows he will. The school Halloween play instead of the normal fair is a symbol of someone acting without thinking of the consequences as Bob Ewell is doing now. Scout being taken to the fair my jem shows that he is still close with her. The chapter seems to begin to build tension as we see Ewell going after others and begin to wonder when he will go after the Finches.30.) Summary: Jean Louis takes Boo Radley to sit on the swing on the porch. They sit and listen to the sherif, Heck Tate, and Atticus discuss the previous situation, including Bob Ewells death. Heck Tate tells Atticus that they will say that, "he fell on his knife," instead of making Jem face the law. Atticus disagrees and thinks it would be better if Jem faced the truth. Tate finally wins Atticus over by telling him that Jem didn't kill him, "Mr. Author" did and that they didn't want Boo to be overwhelmed by the drama of the murder.
28.) Summary: In chapter 28 Scout and Jem are on their way to the school and it is very dark cecil Jacobs jumps out and scares Scout and Jem. At the school Cecil and Scout go the the haunted house and buy homemade candies. Scout falls asleep and misses her entrance she runs out on stage at the end causing everyone to laugh at her the women in charge accuses her of ruining the play. Scout and Jem wait till everyone is gone to begin their way home. On their way home they hear someone behind them but just think that it is Cecil again. When the assailant begins chasing them they run but They grab Jem and Scout tries to run but her costume causes difficulty and she falls. SHe hears something break and Jem scream, the attacker seems to have gone away and the someone is carrying Jem toward home. When they gets the doctor is called and says Jem bumped his head and has a broken arm. Scout goes to see him and the person who helped is in the room. Heck Tate tells Atticus that Bob Ewell is laying stabbed, dead under a tree.
28.) Analysis: Chapter 28 is an exciting chapter it also has us feeling for scout, when scout gets embarrassed. The attack on the children surprises the reader. Thinking that Ewell would attack Atticus he instead attacks Jem and Scout. When scout and Jem are vulnerable in the dark and Scout in her awkward costume it makes it easy to attack them but Lee gives them a chance when someone saves the day and takes them home. Lee keeps the reader on their toes worrying that Jem is ok, thankfully he is.
29.) Summary: In chapter 29 Scout recounts to Atticus and Heck Tate what had happened. She tells them everything from when they left the school to almost going back to get her shoes to when it happened. As scout tells the story Heck Tate looks at her costume and points out a hole where Bob Ewell had tried to stab but the wire stopped the knife. Scout continues telling what happened and said they were under a tree. She said that something grabbed her and smashed her costume. She finished telling the story and said someone was coughing. When They asked who had helped then She looked up pointing the the man in the corner. She then realized it was Boo Radley.
29.) Analysis: As chapter 29 rolls on and scout realizes who it was that saved them. We see that her not recognizing Boo shows that as most children didn't see Boo as the neighbor they saw him as a source of excitement and fun. When she recognizes Boo she begins to see him as he is as a human, and not just a ghost story. This is where the growing up aspect of the book begins to play into the story. Showing that scout is beginning to see things different.
30.) Summary: Jean Louis takes Boo Radley to sit on the swing on the porch. They sit and listen to the sherif, Heck Tate, and Atticus discuss the previous situation, including Bob Ewells death. Heck Tate tells Atticus that they will say that, "he fell on his knife," instead of making Jem face the law. Atticus disagrees and thinks it would be better if Jem faced the truth. Tate finally wins Atticus over by telling him that Jem didn't kill him, "Mr. Author" did and that they didn't want Boo to be overwhelmed by the drama of the murder.
30.) Analysis: Chapter 30 was about someone else's better good. Atticus knew that for the better good of his child that if Jem had really killed his attacker that he face his consequences. This shows Atticus's honestness and good parent hood. Also Heck Tate was looking out for the better good of Boo Radley. He obviously knew that Boo would be scared and overwhelmed by all of the fame if the town found out he saved the children. All in all this chapter was focused on looking out for others.
31.) Summary: In chapter 31, Jean Louis takes Boo Radley off of the swing and leads him back to his house. She gets him to hold his arm out like a gentleman and walks him to his front porch where he lets himself inside. No one would ever see Boo Radley again. After Boo disappears, Scout looks out from the porch into the neighborhood. She imagines how Boo had looked and seen everything. She then understands her fathers quote about not fully understanding someone unless your in their shoes. The book ends with Scout returning home and sitting in her fathers lap by a unconscious Jem as Atticus puts her to sleep by reading a book.
31.) Analysis: Chapter 31 was not only the end of the novel but a huge stepping stone for Scout. Scout finally took the step from a child's knowledge to an adult by understanding her fathers life lessons and Boo Radley. The chapter was focused on maturity and understanding. Jean Louis was the mature and "adult" like figure over Boo, she led him. The book ended with the grasp of comprehension of the things childhood blinded.